Foods That Help Beat Depression

Sorrow is an incapacitating mind-set issue. It needs treatment and there are no doubt. Psychotherapies and other pharmacological medicines can help an individual battle discouragement. Various studies have shown that option medicines, for example, activity, contemplation and yoga, can help a man diminish the side effects of melancholy by building positive vitality inside the brain … Continue reading “Foods That Help Beat Depression”

Sorrow is an incapacitating mind-set issue. It needs treatment and there are no doubt. Psychotherapies and other pharmacological medicines can help an individual battle discouragement. Various studies have shown that option medicines, for example, activity, contemplation and yoga, can help a man diminish the side effects of melancholy by building positive vitality inside the brain and body.

Eating certain nourishment things is another way to deal with battle melancholy that a great many people have a tendency to disregard. The sustenance that one eats can influence the depressive side effects. Eminent nutritionist, natural chemist and creator Shawn Talbot once said, “Eating regimen assumes an immense part in sadness.” And it truly does. Devouring nutritious nourishment can beat soul and assemble a restored vitality in the body.

A portion of the nourishment things that ward off gloom are:

Walnuts: Shawn Talbott, PhD, a nutritious organic chemist and creator of Vigor: 7 Days to Unlimited Energy, Focus, and Well-Being.Shawn Talbott, PhD, a dietary natural chemist and creator of Vigor: 7 Days to Unlimited Energy, Focus, and Well-Being.Shawn Talbott, PhD, a wholesome natural chemist and creator of Vigor: 7 Days to Unlimited Energy, Focus, and Well-Being.Walnuts are one of the best plant-based wellsprings of omega-3 unsaturated fats. Numerous analysts have demonstrated that walnuts lessen depressive manifestations. Additionally, walnuts likewise help in reigniting memory ability and improving manners of thinking.

Green tea: Green tea can expand serotonin level in the mind because of the nearness of amino corrosive L-theanine. Serotonin is a dynamic element of numerous sorrow curing medications.

Avocados: Avocados are rich in vitamins, for example, Vitamin K, Vitamin (B-5, B-6 and B-9), alongside being high in fiber and low in sugar. They additionally contain fat which helps the cerebrum work appropriately. In any case, one ought to watch the bit and ought not devour more than should be expected.

Verdant green vegetables: Leafy green vegetables ought to be a piece of everybody’s eating routine arrangement. Aside from being solid, they contain cancer prevention agents, vitamins – A, C, E and K – and minerals. They help in having a more beneficial, more settled and a dynamic personality.

Entire grains: The fiber-rich sugars present in entire grains are valuable for individuals experiencing despondency. Entire grains, oats, entire wheat pasta, and so on., have starches that enhance dispositions and get a feeling of energy.

Berries: All sorts of berries, for example, blueberries, strawberries and raspberries, have high cancer prevention agent content. They help in diminishing irritation and memory misfortune, and in improving comprehension. Their gainful mixes decrease side effects of anxiety and misery.

Chocolates: Chocolates are awesome at upgrading inclinations. They are metabolized by the body to shape serotonin that helps a man resist the urge to panic. In any case, on the off chance that you are watching your weight, don’t go over the edge on liberality.

Low-fat dairy items: Dairy items that are low in fat battle manifestations of wretchedness. They are rich in calcium and vitamin D and contain proteins that recover a feeling of joy and prosperity. Along these lines, a little liberality in low-fat cheddar, skim milk and yogurt is okay and can beat soul.

Sound sustenance can support the treatment procedure

The right blend of nourishment can help an individual support vitality and battle indications of depressive scenes. Appropriate sustenance is vital for the cerebrum to work in the best way. Great nourishment can give the required sustenance to both the body and the psyche.

Chakra Meditation As a Means of Healing Mind, Body, and Spirit-Soul

Chakra reflection is the way to physical wellbeing, passionate solidness and mental clarity. That is on the grounds that our chakras act as conductors, separating vitality from the sky and earth with the goal that they can bind together. Chakras are actually vitality vortexes. The unification of these energies is the thing that structures a chakra. It is a vortex of moving vitality, which then animates different endocrine organs in the body to emit hormones into the circulatory system. Chakras are portrayed as a sort of pipe with littler pipes within that pipe. They are likewise frequently contrasted with seeming like lotus blooms. Numerous likewise have naturally seen the admission of individual chakras as seeming like the sharp edges of a fan or a windmill pivoting in round movement.

Chakras are entryways which concede our prana-life vitality to stream all through our quality. Their focal design is vitalizing the physical body, and to encourage arousing of our reluctance. They are associated with physical, mental and passionate resources. There are seven noteworthy chakras which are all around perceived.

The quality is by and large considered as the eighth chakra. Our first chakra (root) really stretches out outside of the body. It is housed in the middle of the thighs…just somewhere between the knees and your physical body. The seventh chakra, known as the crown chakra, is arranged on the highest point of the head. Whatever remains of the chakras, (sacral, sun oriented plexus, heart, throat, and eye), are organized in arrangement along the spine, neck, and skull. Independently, chakras look like channels with petal-like openings. In spite of the fact that chakras are not obvious to the human eye, they can be seen psychically via prepared inconspicuous vitality specialists.

The Importance of chakra reflection

Having the chakras examined and treated by a trustworthy and experienced individual prepared in unpretentious vitality work is an awesome method for figuring out how the body works on a powerful level. Powerful vitality specialists that are prepared in managing chakra reflection will have the capacity to let you know which of your chakras are in poor condition, which ones are being exhausted, and what you can to reduce that weight. In the event that, for instance, the chakras are performing on a lower level, whatever remains of the chakras will be compelled to get a move on. Non-working chakras can really “victory” a generally sound chakra, which is surely not great. By relationship, when ones back or hip leaves arrangement, one will travel to the chiropractor’s office for a conformity. In like manner, a magical vitality laborer that is prepared to controlling the vitality stream can help one in having misaligned chakras balanced back to working condition. It might require a couple of sessions with a mending professional to get vitality levels move down to speed. From that point, you can take an assortment of wellbeing activities to keep the chakras open and working ideally, which allows your vitality to stream normally.

Best Methods of Chakra Meditation

I have found that the most ideal method for adjusting and mending by means of chakra contemplation is with mantra rehearse. Figuring out how to function with your “supernatural” personality power inside the chakra domains is extraordinarily successful and effective. So I feel that everybody ought to figure out how to function with supernatural vitality inside the connection of chakra reflection. Maybe it is so viable on the grounds that supernatural power otherwise called “PK” is an experimental truth that has been demonstrated over and over at the world’s driving colleges and by the world’s top researchers. What’s more, as the most seasoned mapping arrangement of human instinct, wellbeing and conduct, the chakras are additionally an exploratory actuality!

My favored type of yoga is Bhakti and it has the most capable impact on the chakras regarding keepig them fit as a fiddle. What’s more, despite the fact that I am not immaculate with my Bhakti rehearse, it is still fantastically valuable in my life! The matra practice and vegetarianism is exceptionally decontaminating and truly makes a significant improvement immediately. The main issue is that you can take control over your reality by working inside the chakra domains. Its that basic. You should simply make the following stride and take in the best chakra contemplation systems. Chakras are additionally a logical actuality, and that is the reason they are so compelling for tending to aspects of our lives that need recuperating, “knead,” and/or unpretentious vitality treatment.

Bhakta David is an accomplished chakra contemplation expert. He is likewise an advocate of Bhakti yoga and a supporter of Guru Gita Sudarshananada. What’s more, there is significantly more helpful data identified with this article at http://www.thisisk.org [http://www.thisispk.org]

Bhakta David Powell is a specialist of Bhakti yoga and a devotee of Guru [http://www.thisispk.org] Gita Sudarshanananda. His experience is in the field of law, theosophy and reasoning. In the wake of completing his legitimate studies in the US, he started considering International and EU law in The Netherlands. Bhakta David now works with numerous yoga social orders and Gurus around the globe, to multiply the supernatural information of Bhakti for helping other people succeed.

Living Well, Staying Healthy In Mind, Body and Spirit

Exercise, stay limber and active, get outside and enjoy life, smell the air, greet the neighbors, say hi to the postman, just be active. And then, and this is paramount, use what modern medical science has available with vitamin supplements.

Here’s what you should be aware of; your body (and particularly your brain) need essential fatty acids, getting your recommended daily allowance will aid in keeping your brain sharp as a tack and dementia merely a word used in scrabble.

The bible says…. “Take a little wine for thy stomach’s sake”. This isn’t a religious discussion, but research shows that Polyphenol, found in red grapes (and other less tantalizing plants) will aid in cognitive functions.

Here’s one I hadn’t heard of till researching this article; ALA or Alpha-Lipoic Acid, seems this one is a fighter (I like it already) and will attack (or interrupt) free radical damage and increase antioxidants in the brain and improve memory, sounds like a winner in my book.

Okay, getting older is a fact of life, so when we look at vitamin supplements and amino acids, we’ll want to find and take those that have proven benefits to brain functions. Enter Coenzyme Q10 which apparently is like a soldier with orders to… “Protect The Brain With Your Life” and do not let the enemy intrude at any cost.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder and with time diminishes, but again, don’t let it happen gracefully, do everything possible to hold to health and longevity. Seems that might have been written as a banner for Vitamin E, known to keep our skin supple (it’s an antioxidant in our tissue) and our brains active. Make CERTAIN to get an ample dose of Vitamin E, it’s vital.

Here’s one that most of us HAVE heard about, good ‘ole Ginkgo Biloba, available at every drugstore and many convenience stores along the highways of life. It is powerful and known to increase blood flow to the brain (a good thing) and vital to keeping our brains in tip top condition. Use your brain, work puzzle, solve riddles, read books, STOP staring at the TV and take a daily dose of Ginkgo Biloba.

Remember the old “Bugs Bunny” cartoons. The wise cracking rabbit that was always one up on whatever situation he encountered? He was always munching on a carrot, and a carrot contains what? Why carotenoids of course which (when taken in a balanced manner) is a proven and powerful antioxidant.

FACTOID: Antioxidants are nutrients or chemicals that are free radical scavengers. Vitamins A, C, E and some B vitamins, beta-carotene, selenium and certain crucial enzymes in our bodies are antioxidants.

The letter B is beautiful, and it can represent so many words, emotions, and memories. And I’m going to focus on memory and speak of vitamins B6 and B12, which are crucial (did you hear that) for our brains to function properly. With these vitamins, we’ll slowly but surely begin to forget things, become confused and certainly NOT grow old gracefully. Make CERTAIN you are getting your recommended daily dose of this vitamin.

Life is about living, we are all on the same path and the path is beautiful indeed. Live well, stay healthy and be sure to take your vitamins.

Yoga – Melding Mind, Body and Health

Upon the consummation of my top of the line, I understood that following forty-four years of living, combined with the day by day mishandle my psyche and body retains, my whole being needed a noteworthy redesign. My brain was running in excessively numerous bearings and required that I get control it over. I could hear the words spilling out of Rose’s lips as she sat in stances just three-year olds ought to have the capacity to crush into. “Unwind your psyche. Unwind your body and recollect to relax.” Remember to relax? I could scarcely discover a wisp of air to recharge my lungs with as I stood, shaking, in what appeared to me to be a tangled chaos.

My brain too was gone head to head with the pestering inquiry of how Rose could say a solitary word as she talked clear sentences of direction to her class while tie up in the same represent that I was endeavoring to strike. “Recall that, she proceeded with, I should see you in the posture for it to tally.” It wasn’t sufficient that I, a runner and weight coach, was humiliated at my absence of yoga expertise. Presently my instructor needed to see me attempting to make a stance for it to number. I kept on battling while watching other people who seemed to have a superior handle of postures.

After class a few understudies loose and tasted tea and ate custom made treats. I was exhausted and would not like to stand so sitting and talking seemed well and good. As I listened and watched, I deliberately created a sentiment of every individual’s yoga aptitudes. They were more adaptable than me and saw how to get into the postures as they were told. I was not and felt substandard. I needed to lose my self image while rehearsing yoga, however wasn’t prepared. Miffed, yet not irate with myself, I started to float away considering different interests that I effectively adjusted my craving and inner self. My better half and children were one and work was another.

As though she could hear my considerations, Rose looked toward me while addressing her understudies and said grinning, “Recall, yoga is an individual practice. It is never an opposition. Some days you will think that its less demanding to stream than others. One side of your body might be more tightly than the other. It’s alright. With practice, you’ll start to see change in quality, adaptability and inward peace.”

Internal peace? How on earth is this stuff going to help me, I contemplated as I horrendously sat with my legs crossed. The years of running in the city now reminded me how horrendously tight my hips were. I had restricted adaptability and attempted to concentrate on anything besides the torment this woman thirty years my senior and all of 100 pounds had put me through. I move around on the floor to locate an agreeable position and grinned at Rose. A mother of three whose children were presently guardians, she was a motivation to numerous.

Meditation Bowls Can Heal the Mind, Body, and Spirit

Meditation has been proven to reduce stress and heal the body. There are many ways to meditate. The focus of this article is meditation singing bowls, the history behind them, and how using them can clear your chakras to reduce stress and bring healing.

There are many ways to experience peace and healing. Spending time in nature, practicing yoga, listening to music or playing singing bowls can bring you closer to a spiritual awakening. Have you ever heard someone say that gardening brings me to my happy place? As long as these activities are free from any other distraction to the mind and it brings a sense of peace, then it is an effective way of meditation. Throughout the day, when people experience stress, their bodies automatically react in ways that prepare them to either fight or run. This may be helpful in some cases; however prolonged states of such agitation can actually cause physical damage to every part of the body. Meditation affects the body in exactly the opposite way that stress does. It restores the body to a calm state, helping the body to repair itself and prevent new damage from being done. Now that you know what mediation is, you will understand how singing bowls are connected to meditation.

Imagine what comes to mind when you hear the word gong. Most people automatically think of a large hanging piece of metal that is struck with a mallet to make a loud sound. This is one type, but many people are unaware that there is another type known as a singing bowl. They are also known as Tibetan bowls, meditation bowls, or singing crystal bowls. Each bowl plays a different musical note that is said to promote physical and emotional healing.

Singing bowls have been used for meditation for centuries by monks and other spiritual gurus. Originally meditation was considered something that is just not meant for modern people, but today, it is becoming more and more popular with people everywhere. Now, there are even Doctors who choose to treat their patients’ physical ailments with musical notes.

Each of these notes correspond energy fields in the body known as chakras. Singing bowls are used to clear out blockages in the energy flow, leaving you in a more calm and peaceful state.

Home-Based Business in Accounting

Home-Based Business in Accounting

There is a considerable growth in the number of companies opting to outsource professional services in customer service, accounting and media management. Significant areas that a company has to carry on effectively are bookkeeping, accounting and tax preparation. All these can be successfully rendered by experienced accountants who are now building their own home-based business in accounting.

If you’ve earned a degree in Accounting, then this business is for you to fall on if you don’t desire to settle for employment. To render services appropriately and competitively, you will need a few years of experience. Establishing credibility to your clients by showing them your track record of experience is most enticing than showing them documents of you passing the board exam as Certified Public Accountant.

If you are not certified yet, seek for it. Most companies would likely pick you if you’re certified or Non-CPA but experienced in all areas of finance and accounting. Apparently, majority of home-based accounting businesses are managed by Non-CPA’s and tax professionals. Those starting to sideline in accounting services have ended up creating their own firms. This report has inspired more CPA’s to launch a home-based accounting firm.

You don’t need to put up a sophisticated office as you can meet your clients in their respective offices. You can communicate with them from home through email, chat, fax and phone. Your accounting business is mostly to cater services like tax preparation quarterly or yearly, security system benefit monitoring, financial analysis and auditing. If you’re in need some extra bucks, you can start working t home by offering your accounting expertise

5 Reasons to Hire an Accountant

5 Reasons to Hire an Accountant

When you are a small business owner, the need for an accountant begins as soon as you make the decision to start a new business. A knowledgeable and experienced accountant is able to help you make informed business decisions and save money at every stage of your business.

Small business owners, though generally experts in their own fields, are not usually well versed in, nor do they have the time to become an expert in accounting processes or tax laws. Considering the immense investment of time and resources required to start and operate a business, it’s generally a good idea to bring in an expert. Below are the top five reasons to consider hiring an accountant as soon as possible.

Reason #1: Accountants Can Help Increase Profits

Accountants are especially equipped to use the information contained in ledgers, reports and statements to help you better manage your business’ bottom line and increase profits. Their sole purpose and goal is to focus on managing daily expenses and developing and implementing a plan to maximize profitability

Reason #2: Accountants Can Help Maximize Tax Returns

Accountants are experts uniquely trained in all aspects of small business tax law. They invest significant amounts of time and energy into learning and applying the complexities of the ever changing statutes for clients in a wide variety of industries. Because of this, they are able to help get you the best return possible.

Reason #3: Accountants Can Help Open Up Opportunities

Accountants are able to intelligently appraise the potential profit and loss of future projects, create business proposals to secure needed financing and develop budgets to increase the eventual likelihood of their success. This is extremely helpful when trying to expand or make changes to your business.

Reason #4: Accountants Can Help with Networking

Accountants typically have other business referrals that they can provide. These may be other clients that they have, or just people they have met at business gatherings who may be interested in networking and getting involved in your business.

Reason #5: Accountants Can Help with Tools

Accountants are trained and experienced with the latest tools and processes to ensure the accuracy and reliability of your financial information. Through the use of advanced software, they are able to disseminate large amounts of information down into simple, easy-to-read reports that help in operational decisions.

SharePoint Control of Financial Systems

SharePoint Control of Financial Systems

The need for strong financial control within any company is paramount to its success but often this control means getting non-financial members of staff to adhere to the rules of time and accuracy. Time and time again management accounts are produced on a monthly basis but a percentage of the information relating to costs has been omitted. Chasing users with requests for information from the accounts department can often be seen as not important and often slips down the list of managerial responsibility.

With SharePoint you can use a work flow utility which shows when a user is required to make a return and also shows when a user is not adhering to time set out in the schedule. Peer pressure is a very strong persuasive power in a company and if you are shown up among your peers that your monthly returns are late than you will try harder to ensure next month’s return is on time.

Companies I have worked for have had a very slack personnel expenses regime. This leads to instances where a user would not make a claim for expenses for a 6 months period (multiple claims). The ulterior motive being that when they get paid a large lump sum they can use this for a holiday or the like. This again means financial control on a month by month basis is being distorted. With its work flow utility, SharePoint can bring about a better control of expenses, only allowing a 21 day period from the month end for the user to fill in their expenses claim. There is still an over-ride whereby the finance department can agree to pay the user due to unforeseen circumstances such as long period of illness etc.

Controls such as those I have mentioned are aimed at producing accurate monthly management accounts. Many an organization has employees who at the end of the year suddenly produce invoices which need to be paid and which may have been more relevant in a different period of the year. The SharePoint model can be used to create purchase orders that ensure invoices do not get buried in the system. Once the purchase order has been created, the user has a set time to produce the invoice which pertains to the purchase order. If this invoice is not produced then the purchase order will show as an alert and the user will be required to answer the reason for the delay.

Purchase orders are seen by Accountants who are investigating fraud as the starting point for any enquiry. The patterns in purchasing can alert a manger or auditor to irregularities and with SharePoint’s clear analysis, the time effort to identify issues can be minimal. The purchase orders need to be requested by a manager who can justify the need for the purchase and then can be signed off by a manager who has the required budget for the purchase. (The value of the purchase will need to be within the capacity of the manager). Auditing after the event can be very difficult as paper trails can become compromised but with a system which is read only the information can be audited.

In some organisations the finance department is autonomous, whereas in some organisations each department has a finance element. Both systems have their advantages and disadvantage but with the above SharePoint system this can cut across department issues and with its transparency bring about an accountable finance department which is producing meaningful and accurate management accounts.

Accounting Conventions and Accounting Concepts

Accounting Conventions and Accounting Concepts

(1) Relevance

The convention of relevance emphasizes the fact that only such information should be made available by accounting as is relevant and useful for achieving its objectives. For example, business is interested in knowing as to what has been total labor cost? It is not interested in knowing how much employees spend and what they save.

(2) Objectivity

The convention of objectivity emphasizes that accounting information should be measured and expressed by the standards which are commonly acceptable. For example, stock of goods lying unsold at the end of the year should be valued as its cost price not at a higher price even if it is likely to be sold at higher price in future. Reason is that no one can be sure about the price which will prevail in future.

(3) Feasibility

The convention of feasibility emphasizes that the time, labor and cost of analyzing accounting information should be compared vis-à-vis benefit arising out of it. For example, the cost of ‘oiling and greasing’ the machinery is so small that its break-up per unit produced will be meaningless and will amount to wastage of labor and time of the accounting staff.

Accounting Concepts

(1) Materiality

It refers to the relative importance of an item or event. Those who make accounting decisions continually confront the need to make judgments regarding materiality. Is this item large enough for users of the information to be influenced by it? The essence of the materiality concept is : the omission or misstatement of an item is material if, in the light of surrounding circumstances, the magnitude of the item is such that it is probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying on the report would have been changed or influenced by the inclusion or correction of the item.

(2) Accounting period

Though accounting practice believes in continuing entity concept i.e. life of the business is perpetual but still it has to report the ‘results of the activity undertaken in specific period (normally one year). Thus accounting attempts to present the gains or losses earned or suffered by the business during the period under review. Normally, it is the calendar year (1st January to 31st December) but in other cases it may be financial year (1st April to 31st March) or any other period depending upon the convenience of the business or as per the business practices in country concerned.

Due to this concept it is necessary to take into account during the accounting period, all items of revenue and expenses accruing on the date of the accounting year. The problem confronting this concept is that proper allocation should be made between capital and revenue expenditure. Otherwise the results disclosed by the financial statements will be affected.

(3) Realization

This concept emphasizes that profit should be considered only when realized. The question is at what stage profit should be deemed to have accrued? Whether at the time of receiving the order or at the time of execution of the order or at the time of receiving the cash. For answering this question the accounting is in conformity with the law (Sales of Goods Act) and recognizes the principle of law i.e. the revenue is earned only when the goods are transferred. It means that profit is deemed to have accrued when ‘property in goods passes to the buyer’ viz. when sales are affected.

(4) Matching

Though the business is a continuous affair yet its continuity is artificially split into several accounting years for determining its periodic results. This profit is the measure of the economic performance of a concern and as such it increases proprietor’s equity. Since profit is an excess of revenue over expenditure it becomes necessary to bring together all revenues and expenses relating to the period under review. The realization and accrual concepts are essentially derived from the need of matching expenses with revenues earned during the accounting period. The earnings and expenses shown in an income statement must both refer to the same goods transferred or services rendered during the accounting period. The matching concept requires that expenses should be matched to the revenues of the appropriate accounting period. So we must determine the revenue earned during a particular accounting period and the expenses incurred to earn these revenues.

(5) Entity

According to this concept, the task of measuring income and wealth is undertaken by accounting, for an identifiable Unit or Entity: The unit or entity so identified is treated different and distinct from its owners or contributors. In law the distinction between owners and the business is drawn only in the case of joint stock companies but in accounting this distinction is made in the case of sole proprietor and partnership firm as well. For example, goods used from the stock of the business for business purposes are treated as a business expenditure but similar goods used by the proprietor i.e. owner for his personal use are treated as his drawings. Such distinction between the owner and the business unit has helped accounting in reporting profitability more objectively and fairly. It has also led to the development of “responsibility accounting” which enables us to find out the profitability of even the different sub-units of the main business.

(6) Stable Monetary Unit

Accounting presumes that the purchasing power of monetary unit, say Rupee, remains the same throughout. For example, the intrinsic worth of one Rupee is same and equal in the year 1,800 and 2,000 thus ignoring the effect of rising or falling purchasing power of monetary unit due to deflation or inflation. In spite of the fact that the assumption is unreal and the practice of ignoring changes in the value of money is now being extensively questioned, still the alternatives suggested to incorporate the changing value of money in accounting statements viz., current purchasing power method (CPP) and current cost accounting method (CCA) are in evolutionary stage. Therefore, for the time being we have to be content with the ‘stable monetary unit’ concept.

(7) Cost

This concept is closely related to the going concern concept. According to this, an asset is ordinarily recorded in the books at the price at which it was acquired i.e. at its cost price. This ‘cost’ serves the basis for the accounting of this asset during the subsequent period. This’ cost’ should not be confused with ‘value’.

It must be remembered that as the real worth of the assets changes from time to time, it does not mean that the value of such an assets is wrongly recorded in the books. The book value of the assets as recorded do not reflect their real value. They do not signify that the values noted therein are the values for which they can be sold. Though the assets are recorded in the books at cost, in course of time, they become reduced in value on account of depreciation charges. In certain cases, only the assets like ‘goodwill’ when paid for will appear in the books at cost and when nothing is paid for, it will not appear even though this asset exists on name and fame created by a concern.

Therefore, the values attached to the assets in the balance sheet and the net income as shown in the Profit and Loss account cannot be said to reflect the correct measurement of the financial position of an undertaking, as they do not have any relation to the market value of the assets or their replacement values. This idea that the transactions should be recorded at cost rather than at a subjective or arbitrary value is known as Cost Concept. With the passage of time, the market value of fixed assets like land and buildings vary greatly from their cost.

These changes or variations in the value are generally ignored by the accountants and they continue to value them in the balance sheet at historical cost. The principle of valuing the fixed assets at their cost and not at market value is the underlying principle in cost concept. According to them, the current values alone will fairly represent the cost to the entity.

The cost principle is based on the principle of objectivity. The supporters of this method argue so long as the users of the financial statements have confidence in the statements, there is no necessity to change this method.

(8) Conservatism

This concept emphasizes that profit should never be overstated or anticipated. Traditionally, accounting follows the rule “anticipate no profit and provide for all possible losses. For example, the closing stock is valued at cost price or market price, whichever is lower. The effect of the above is that in case market price has come down then provide for the ‘anticipated loss’ but if the market price has gone up then ignore the ‘anticipated profits’.

Critics point out that conservation to an excess degree will result in the creation of secret reserve. This will be quite contrary to the doctrine of disclosure. However, conservatism to a reasonable degree may not come in for criticism.

Accounting Equation

Dual concept may be stated as “for every debit, there is a credit.” Every transaction should have two sided effect to the extent of same amount. This concept has resulted in Accounting Equation which states that at any point of time the assets of any entity must be equal (in monetary terms) to the total of owner’s equity and outsider’s liabilities. This may be expressed in the form of equation:

A-L = P

where

A stands for assets of the entity;

L stands for liabilities (outsider’s claims) of the entity; and

P stands for Proprietor’s claim (Capital) on the entity.

(The form of presentation of equation A-L = P is consistent with the legal interpretation of financial position. Thus it emphasizes that properly speaking the proprietary claim is the balance after providing for outsider’s claims against the business from the total assets of the business).

How To Choose The Right Accountant

   Choose The Right Accountant

An accountant is a professional who keeps track of the financial records of a business or an individual. There are a number of individuals and businesses who use the services of an accountant all year round. There are other individuals who only hire an accountant to help get all of their finances in order before their tax returns are due. There are millions of accountants located all around the world. With many cities and towns having at least ten professional accountants it is often difficult for many individuals to decide which accountant they should hire.

Learning how to choose an accountant for personal or business use is a fairly easy process. There are a number of factors that should be considered before the services of an accountant are actually hired. The best way to get started on hiring an accountant is by finding a number of them in the area. It is possible to hire an accountant that is not located in the same area as an individual or business; however, many individuals feel that it is easier to deal with an accountant who is local.

There are a number of ways that an individual or business can find an accountant. The most popular way is through research. Many professional accountants are listed in the local phone or they advertise their business online. When using a phone book to find an accountant individuals should look in the yellow pages or the business directory of their phone book. The majority of accountants are listed under the heading of Accounting and Bookkeeping. It is also possible for an accountant to be found by using an online business directory. Online business directories work in the same way that a traditional phone book does; however, they are often nationwide and sometimes include feedback from previous customers. Feedback ratings of a particular company may come in handy when trying to find an reputable accountant to do business with. Many individuals also find an accountant by asking for recommendations from family, friends, and coworkers.

Personal recommendations are a great way to learn about an accountant that is professional and highly recommend; however, individuals and business owners are encouraged not to just take the word of someone that they know. A large number of accountants offer free consultations to the general public. Individuals and business owners are encouraged to use a free consultations to learn more about an accountant. If a free consultation is not available many professional accountants do not mind answering a number of questions over the phone or in an email.

The most important thing to consider when looking to choose an accountant is their qualifications. There are many states that require their accountants to become certified before operating a business, but there are others that do not regulate the way that accountants operate. A certified public accountant (CPA) is often a professional individual who was trained and has a large amount of accounting experience. Many certified public accountants charge more for their services, but at the same time they often offer better results.

There are many accountants who handle a wide variety of case loads; however, there are some that only specialize in a specific area of accounting or deal with a certain type of client. Individuals and business owners are encouraged to speak with an accountant to determine if their services can be applied to their individual needs. There are many accountants who only specialize in personal accounting while others may only work with business owners.

It is also important to determine if an accountant is working on their own or if they are a part of a larger accounting team. While each may have their advantages it is possible that a large accounting firm may mean that multiple accountants will be working on your finances. There are many individuals who only want to work with one accountant instead of multiple accountants. Working one on one with a specific accountant often allows individuals to feel like they are getting the appropriate amount of attention and it also creates less confusion and errors.

As previously mentioned learning how to choose an accountant is a fairly easy process once individuals or business owners known which type of questions to ask. Asking questions is the best way to learn about their qualifications and the amount of money that their services cost. There is a perfect accountant out there for every individuals or business it may just take a little bit of research to find him or her.